ORDERING CONCEPTS

Use the right works in the statements below and you´ll get a summary of the essential features of religious music ( RM) and secular  music ( SM) in the Middle Ages.

Latin, intensity, text, free, fun, male, monophony, joglars, rondeau, anonymous, melismatic, polyphonic, definite, drone, pray, troubadours, undulating, organ, gentle, a capella, minnesänger.


Character:

(RM) Gregorian chants were used to _____________and communicate with God.

(SM) Music intended for entertainment and ________________.


Genre:

(RM) These were __________________songs because their authoship ( until the 9th century) was unknown, and they were written in _______________.

(SM)Songs ( text and music) were composed by___________________ and sung in the vernacular language ( of each country).


Tempo and beat

( RM) Songs present a ______________and natural rhythm based on the text.

( SM) There were compositions with a _______________rhythm because they were intended to be danced.


Dynamic and dynamic markings

( RM) Gregorian chants used a ___________________intensity although there were no dynamic markings.

(SM) They do not use changes in ________________and if at times the sounds are louder, this is due to the number of instruments used.


Instrumentation

( RM) The Gregorian chant in Middle Ages was sung only by ____________ and _________________voices, either in direct or responsorial form. The __________________was the only instrument that could acompany these chants.

( SM) In these songs, troubadours, minstrels and ____________________performed strings, wind and percussion instruments. In Germany,  troubadours were called________________________.


Melody

(RM) The way melodies were combined with the text was syllabic ( one note=one syllable), pneumatic ( some notes=one syllable) or___________________( many notes=one syllable).

(SM) These songs, usually played by non-professionals, do not make great demands on the singer´s vocal technique, being____________________melodies ( easy to sing and remember).


Texture

(RM)Gregorian chants use a texture called____________________.

In Notre Dame, Leonin and Perotin started composing ________________music.

( SM) Sometimes, the songs can be acompanied by a _____________. It can be heard in bagpipes and hurdy-gurdies.


Form

(RM) Music proceeds in relation to the ____________and depending on time, place and date.

(SM) Form is related to text. Among the most usual are ballads, pastorals, virelai and _______________  ( pieces with verses and choruses)


- Answer the following questions:

With a C: Name of the kind of singing in which voices have no musical acompaniment: A__________________

With a G: Name of the Benediktine monk who developed new techniques for teaching and started using our notes: "ut–re–mi–fa–so–la with the initial syllables each of the first six half-lines of the first stanza of the hymn Ut queant laxis. He came from Arezzo. 

With G: Gregorian chants were unified and compiled in the 7th century by pope________________________

With an L: A medieval manuscript found in Montserrat monastery with monophonic and polyphonic songs sung by pilgrims. 

With an M: The name of the little pictures used by the monks for decorating their manuscripts:

With a T: Medieval musicians who actually wrote music and text in poetry form:


Editorial Marfil, Tabarca, Ecir.